SXFiveFE

Field Emission EPMA for High Resolution Quantitative Analysis and X-Ray Mapping
The SXFiveFE is CAMECA’s fifth generation electron probe microanalyzer offering the unique combination of a field emission electron column with industry-leading high-sensitivity spectrometers. It enables high accuracy quantitative chemical microanalysis and x-ray mapping at the highest possible spatial resolution in mineralogy, geochronology, metallurgy and material sciences.
  • Product overview +


    Optimized Field Emission electron column
    The SXFiveFE is equipped with a Field Emission (FE) electron source (Schottky emitter). The electron column has been optimized to achieve small beam diameters with high beam currents even at low accelerating voltages thus enabling X-ray mapping and quantitative analysis at extremely high spatial resolution. The beam intensity is accurately measured with an annular Faraday cup and is continuously regulated, achieving a stability of 0.5% per hour, thus enabling reliable quantitative analyses. The high voltage system operates at up to 30 keV for elements with high atomic number.

    The finest Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometers (WDS)
    Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry is acknowledged as the method of choice for high precision quantitative analysis. Up to 5 WDS spectrometers, plus one energy dispersive spectrometer EDS, may be fitted to the SXFiveFE microprobe. Optical encoders ensure the accurate positioning of the spectrometers which can be mounted vertically for flat and polished specimens or may be inclined for rough specimens. High sensitivity crystals allow a nearly three-fold increase in count rate while maintaining peak to background ratio and spectral resolution, and keeping the full spectrometer analysis range, making the SXFive and SXFiveFE instruments of choice for the analysis of trace and light elements.

    Optimized vacuum
    The SXFiveFE is evacuated with a turbomolecular pump backed with a dry rough pump to ensure a clean vacuum environment. The column is pumped with two ion getter pumps to achieve UHV conditions in the Field Emission source volume. All valves are pneumatically activated and all vacuum sequences are controlled with a new processor for increased reliability.

    Fully integrated optical microscope for easy sample navigation
    Using a digital CCD camera, opaque specimens are viewed in reflected light while thin sections are imaged in transmitted light. The Field Of View of the optical image is continuously variable from 250 to 1700 µm thanks to a motorized lens, and an autofocus system guarantees that the specimen surface returns to the correctly focused position at any time.

    Dedicated automation and analysis software package
    The SXFiveFE is equipped with the latest imaging X-ray acquisition, PC automation under the latest Windows version and user interface technology. Automation has been enhanced for maximum efficiency and unattended analysis. Learn more on Peaksight, CAMECA's EPMA Automation & Analysis Software under PC-Windows Environment.

  • See what the SXFiveFE can do +

  • Download documentation +

  • Scientific publications +


    See below a selection of scientific publications by users of CAMECA EPMA.
    Click on your field of interest:
    - Intrumentation
    - Trace elements
    - Small areas
    - Mineralogy / Geology
    - Geochronology
    - Quantification
    - Light elements / Soft X-rays
    - Biology / Life sciences
    - Nuclear sciences

    Instrumentation

    Quantitative Analysis and High Resolution X-ray Mapping with a Field Emission Electron Microprobe. C. Hombourger, M. Outrequin. Microscopy Today, Volume 21, Number 3, pp 10-15, May 2013

    Renewal of the shielded Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) in the CEA LECA-STAR hot laboratory: safety and technical improvements.
    J. Lamontagne, T. Blay, P. Navarra. Poster presentation at Hotlab conference, Dimitrovgrad, Russia, 2010

    Cathodoluminescence imaging and titanium thermometry in metamorphic quartz. F. S. Spear, D. A. Wark, J. metamorphic Geol., 27, pp 187-205, (2009)

    Constructing ternary phase diagrams directly from EPMA compositional maps. D.R. Snoeyenbos, D. A. Wark, J. C. Zhao, Microscopy and Microanalysis 14 (Suppl. 2), pp 1276-1277 (2008)
    > Download abstract

    Imaging of cathodoluminescence zoning in calcite by scanning electron microscopy and hyper-spectral mapping. M. Lee, R.W. Martin, C. Trager-Cowan and P.R. Edwards, Journal of Sedimentary Research 75, pp 313-322 (2005)

    An expert system for EPMA. Cecile Fournier, Claude Merlet, Pierre F. Staub, Olivier Dugne. Mikrochim. Acta 132, pp 531-539 (2000)

    Spectral decomposition of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectra: implications for quantitative analysis in the electron probe microanalyser. G. Rémond, J. L. Campbell, R. H. Packwood, and M. Fialin, Scanning Microscopy Supplement, 7, pp 89–132 (1993)

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    Trace elements

    Determination of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf in micro-phases at low concentrations by EPMA. F. Kalfoun, C. Merlet, and D. Ionov, Mikrochimica Acta, 139, pp 83–91 (2002) 
     
    Advances in electron microprobe trace-element analysis. B. W. Robinson and J. Graham, Journal of Computer-Assisted Microscopy, vol. 43, p. 263–265 (1992)

    Electron microprobe determination of minor and trace transition elements in silicate minerals: a method and its application to mineral zoning in the peridotite nodule PHN 1611. C. Merlet and J. L. Bodinier, Chemical Geology, 83, pp 55–69 (1990)

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    Small areas

    High spatial resolution electron probe microanalysis of tephras and melt inclusions without beam-induced chemical modification. C. Hayward, The Holocene, published online 8 August 2011  

    Identification by EPMA of submicron borides in joints of nickel base superalloys. C. Pascal, C. Merlet, R. M. Marin-Ayral, J. C. Tédenac, and B. Boyer, Mikrochimica Acta vol. 145, Numbers 1-4, pp 147–151 (2004)

    Submicrometer phase chemical composition analysis with an electron probe microanalyser. F. C. Y. Wang, X-Ray Spectrometry, 23, pp 203–207 (1994)  

    Scanning electron microscopy techniques in the study of atmospheric aerosol particles. J. C. Seymour, R. N. Guillemette, and N. W. Tindale, Proceedings of the 28th Annual MAS Meeting, Ed. J.J. Friel, New Orleans, LA, pp 65–66 (1994)

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    Mineralogy/Geochronology

    New evidence for Palaeoproterozoic High Grade Metamorphism in the Trivandrum Block, Southern India. Harley S.L. and Nandakumar V. Precambrian Resaerch 280 (2016), Pages 120-138

    Accessory Mineral Behaviour in Granulite Migmatites: a Case Study from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, India. Harley S.L. and Nandakumar V (2014), Journal of Petrology, Volume 55, Issue 10, Pages 1965-2002. DOI: 10.1093/petrology/egu047

    Opaque minerals, magnetic properties, and paleomagnetism of the Tissint Martian meteorite. Jérôme Gattacceca, Roger H. Hewins, Jean-Pierre Lorand, Pierre Rochette, France Lagroix, Cécile Cournède, Minoru Uehara, Sylvain Pont, Violaine Sautter, Rosa. B. Scorzelli, Chrystel Hombourger, Pablo Munayco, Brigitte Zanda, Hasnaa Chennaoui, Ludovic Ferrière. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 1-18 (2013)
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/maps.12172/full

    Anomalous sulphur isotopes in plume lavas reveal deep mantle storage of Archaean crust. Rita A. Cabral, Matthew G. Jackson, Estelle F. Rose-Koga, Kenneth T. Koga, Martin J. Whitehouse, Michael A. Antonelli, James Farquhar, James M. D. Day, Erik H. Hauri. NATURE 496, 490-493 (25 April 2013)
    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v496/n7446/full/nature12020.html

    How continuous and precise is the record of P–T paths? Insights from combined thermobarometry and thermodynamic modelling into subduction dynamics (Schistes Lustrés, W. Alps).
    A. Plunder, P. Agard, B. Dubacq, C. Chopin, M. Bellanger. Journal of Metamorphic Geology (April 2012), v.30, issue 3, p. 323-346, DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1314.2011.00969.x

    Evaporation and recondensation of sodium in Semarkona Type II chondrules.
    Roger H. Hewins, Brigitte Zanda, Claire Bendersky. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 78, 1 February 2012, Pages 1-17, ISSN 0016-7037, 10.1016/j.gca.2011.11.027.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016703711007022

    Subduction interface processes recorded by eclogite-facies shear zones (Monviso, W Alps). S. Angiboust, P. Agard, H. Raimbourg, P. Yamato, B. Huet, Lithos, Volume 127, Issues 1–2, November 2011, Pages 222–238

    Minerals of Britain and Ireland.
    Tindle, A.G. Terra Publishing, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. 624 pp. (2008)

    Gold mineralization within the Witwatersrand Basin, Sout Africa: evidence for a modified placer origin, and the role of the Vredefort impact event. C. L. Hayward, W. U. Reimold, R. L. Gibson & L. J. Robb. Geological Society, London, Special Publications v. 248; p. 31-58; DOI: 10.1144/GSL.SP.2005.248.01.02 (2005)

    Liddicoatite and associated species from the Mc Combe spodumene-subtype rare-element granitic pegmatite, Northwestern Ontario, Canada. Tindle, A.G., Selway, J.B. and Breaks, F.W., Can. Mineral. 43, 769-793 (2005)

    Tourmaline in petalite-subtype granitic pegmatites: evidence of fractionation and contamination from the Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of NW Ontario, Canada. Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W. and Selway, J.B. Can. Mineral. 40, 753-788 (2002)

    Columbite-tantalite mineral chemistry from rare-element granitic pegmatites: Separation Lake area, N.W. Ontario, Canada. Tindle, A.G. and Breaks, F.W., Mineralogy & Petrology 70, 165-198 (2000)

    Tantalum mineralogy of rare-element granitic pegmatites from the Separation Lake area, NW Ontario, Canada. Tindle, A.G. and Breaks, F.W. Ontario Geological Survey, Open File Report 6022, 378pp (2000)

    A Reappraisal of the Pressure-Temperature Path of Granulites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India. V. Nandakumar and Simon Leigh Harley. The Journal of Geology 108(6):687-703 · November 2000

    Oxide minerals of the Separation Rapids Rare-Element Granitic Pegmatite Group, northwestern Ontario. Tindle, A.G. and Breaks, F.W., Can. Mineral. 36, 609-635 (1998)

    Wodginite-group minerals from the Separation Rapids Rare-Element Granitic Pegmatite Group, northwestern Ontario. Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W. and Webb, P.C., Can. Mineral. 36, 637-658. (1998)

    • Fe2+ and Fe3+

    Accurate determination of ferric iron in garnets. Ryan J. Quinn, John W. Valley, F. Zeb Page, John H. Fournelle, American Mineralogist, Volume 101, pages 1704–1707. (2016)

    Aluminum and iron behavior in glasses from destabilized spinels: A record of fluid/melt-mineral interaction in mantle xenoliths from Massif Central, France. Michel Fialin, Christiane Wagner, American Mineralogist, Volume 100, pages 1411–1423. (2015)

    Determination of Fe3+/Fe using the electron microprobe: A calibration for amphiboles. William M. Lamb, Renald Guillemette, Robert K. Popp, Steven J. Fritz, Gregory J. Chmiel, American Mineralogist, Volume 97, pages 951–961. (2012)

    Iron speciation using electron microprobe techniques: application to glassy melt pockets within a spinel lherzolite xenolith. Michel Fialin, Christiane Wagner, M.-L. Pascal, Mineralogical Magazine, April 2011, Vol. 75(2), pp. 347–362. (2011)

    Quantitative electron microprobe analysis of Fe3+/ΣFe: Basic concepts and experimental protocol for glasses. Michel Fialin, Antoine Bézos, Christiane Wagner, Veronique Magnien, Eric Humler, American Mineralogist, Volume 89, pages 654–662. (2004)

    Quantification of Fe2+/Fe3+ by Electron Microprobe Analysis – New Developments. H. E. Höfer, Hyperfine Interactions 144/145: 239–248. (2002) 

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    Geochronology

    Limitations of chemical dating of monazite. Frank S. Spear, Joseph M. Pyle, Daiele Cherniak, Chemical Geology 266, pp 227-239 (2009) 

    Electron probe (Ultrachron) microchronometry of metamorphic monazite: Unraveling the timing of polyphase thermotectonism in the easternmost Wyoming Craton (Black Hills, South Dakota). Dahl, P.S. et al., American Mineralogist, 90, pp 1712-1728 (2005)

    Analytical perils (and progress) in electron microprobe trace element analysis applied to geochronology: Background acquisition, interferences, and beam irradiation effects. M. J. Jercinovic and M. L. Williams, American Mineralogist (2004)

    Microprobe monazite geochronology: putting absolute time into microstructural analysis. M. L. Williams and M. J. Jercinovic, Journal of Structural Geology, 24, pp 1013-1028 (2002)
     
    Electron microprobe dating of monazite. J. M Montel, S. Foret, et al, Chemical Geology 131,  pp 37–53 (1996)

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    Quantification

    The tectono-metamorphic evolution of metasedimentary rocks of the Nampo group outcropped in the area of the Daecheon Beach and Maryangri, Seocheon-gun, Chungcheongnam-do. Yong-Sun Song, Jungyoun Choi, and Kye-Hun Park. Jour. Petrol. Soc. Korea Vol.17, N° 1, p 1-15 (2008) (article in Korean)

    Assessment of the primary structure of slabs and the influence on hot- and cold-rolled strip structure. Hubert Presslinger, Michael Mayr, Ernst Tragl, Christian Bernhard. Steel Research Int. 77 N02 (2006)

    Capability and uncertainty in multilayer quantitative procedure with Electron Probe Microanalysis. C. Merlet, Proceed. of Microscopy and Microanalysis, Edited by E. Voelkl, D. Piston, R. Gauvin, A. J. Lockley, G. W. Bailey, and S. Mckernan, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol 8, supp.2, Cambridge University press, pp 428–429 (2002)
     
    Study of surface modification of uranium and UFe2 by various surface analysis techniques. O. Bonino, O. Dugne, C. Merlet, E. Gat, Ph. Holliger, and M. Lahaye, Journal of Nuclear Materials 294, 3, pp 305 (2001)

    The dependence of the optical energies on InGaN composition. K. P. O'Donnell, et al, Materials Science and Engineering: B82, pp 194–196 (2001)

    EPMA sputter depth profiling: a new technique for quantitative in-depth analysis of layered structures. P. Karduck and A. von Richthofen, Proc. 29th annual MAS meeting, pp 205–206 (1995)

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    Light elements / Soft X-rays

    Electron probe microanalysis near phase boundaries of Cu-TiN system. C. Fournier, S. Lequeux, C. Fucili, F. Le Guyadec, and C. Merlet, Proceedings 3rd Regional Workshop EMAS, Barcelona, Spain, p 43 (1998)

    Electron-probe microanalysis of ultra-light elements in multiphase diffusion couples. W. Lengauer, J. Bauer, M. Bohn, H. Wiesenberger, and P. Ettmayer, Proc. 4th EMAS European workshop, p 374 (1995)

    Electron probe microanalysis of submicron coatings of ultralight elements. P. Willich and R. Bethke, Microbeam Analysis, 2, pp 45–52 (1993)

    EPMA studies of L-emission spectra and measurements on Mn La self-absorption coefficient as indicator of its chemical state in minerals. I. P. Laputina, V. A. Batyrev, V. V. Changulov, and I. B. Baranova, Proc. 4th EMAS European workshop, pp 370 (1995)

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    Biology / Life sciences

    Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians. Cunningham JA, Thomas CW, Bengtson S, Kearns SL, Xiao S, Marone F, Stampanoni M, Donoghue PC. Proc Biol Sci. 2012 Jun 22;279(1737):2369-76 (2012)

    In situ identification and X-ray imaging of microorganisms distribution on the Tatahouine meteorite. Lemelle L, Salome M, Fialin M, Simionovici A , Gillet P. Spectrochimica Acta Part B-Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 59, p. 1703-1710 (2004)

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    Nuclear sciences

    Heat capacity of Bi2UO6. K. Popa, O. Beneš, P. E. Raison, J-C. Griveau, P. Pöml, E. Colineau, R.J.M. Konings, J. Somers. Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 465, p. 653-656, doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.06.055 (2015)

    ECRIX-H Irradiation: Post-Irradiation Examinations and Simulations. S. Béjaoui, J. Lamontagne, E. Esbelin, J.M. Bonnerot, E. Brunon, P. Bourdot, Y. Pontillon. Presentation at FP7 FAIRFUELS Workshop, Stockholm, Sweden, February 2011

    Chemical States of Fission Products and Actinides in Irradiated Oxide Fuels Analyzed by Thermodynamic Calculation and Post-Irradiation Examination. K. Kurosaki, K. Tanaka, M. Osaka, Y. Ohishi, H. Muta, M. Uno, S.Yamanaka. Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology, Vol. 2, p.5-8 (2011) 

    Microstructural evolution and Am migration behavior in Am-containing MOX fuels at the initial stage of irradiation.
    K. Tanaka, S. Miwa, I. Sato, M. Osaka, T. Hirosawa, H. Obayashi, S. Koyama, H. Yoshimochi, K. Tanaka. Presentation at the 10th OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Information Exchange Meeting on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation, Mito, Japan, October 2008

    On the Oxidation State of UO2 Nuclear Fuel at a Burn-Up of Around 100 MWd/kgHM.
    C.T. Walker, V.V. Rondinella, D. Papaioannou, S. Van Winckel, W. Goll, R. Manzel. Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 345, p. 192–205 (2005)

    Analysis of High Radioactive Materials in Irradiated DUPIC SIMFUEL Using EPMA. Jung, Yang Hong; Yoo, Bang Ok; Joo Yong Sun; Kim, Hee Mun; Jung In Ha; Kim, Myung Han. Journal of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society, Vol. 2(2), p. 125-133 (2004)

    Multiple voltage electron probe microanalysis of fission gas bubbles in irradiated nuclear fuel. M. Verwerft. Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 282, p. 97-111, doi:10.1016/S0022-3115(00)00421-9 (2000)

  • Some of our EPMA users +

    A selection of CAMECA SX users

    University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, USA
    UMass is home to the "Ultra-Chron" project, a collaboration between CAMECA and the University of Massachusetts for the development of a microprobe optimized for geochronology and trace element analysis. The microprobe facility at UMass has a main focus on monazite dating, but also performs analytical work on all kinds of high technology materials: ceramics, semiconductor microelectronics, fiber optics...

    CAMCOR, University of Oregon, USA
    CAMCOR is a characterization center at the University of Oregon open to outside clients that provides enabling infrastructure for research in chemistry, geology, archaeology, nanoscience, materials science, bioscience, and optics. It is equipped with 2 CAMECA microprobes, a SX 50 and a SX 100.

    University of Arizona, USA
    The Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at University of Arizona received it first CAMECA EPMA (SX 50 model) in 1990. A new SX 100 will be installed in late February 2010. The older instrument will remain in operation in a freshly renovated lab.

    Microanalysis Laboratory at Université de Laval, Quebec, Canada
    The Laboratoire de Microanalyse maintains a CAMECA SX 100 for microanalysis of geological and inorganic materials. The laboratory is available to researchers from Laval and other universities and acts as a regional facility for industrial research...

    UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    The Institute of Geosciences at Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul received one of the first SXFive Electron MIcroprobe in South America, in 2014. Installed in the Department of Geosciences, the instrument is also used for a wide spectrum of material sciences, physics and chemistry research topics.

    Technical University of Clausthal, Germany
    The EPMA department at TU Clausthal is equipped with a SX 100 Electron Microprobe installed in 1996 to replace an aging JEOL JXA-3, and a SXFive installed in 2015.

    Ruhr University Buchum, Germany
    Installed in 2014, a SXFiveFE complements the SX 50 at the Electron Microprobe lab of the Ruhr-University Bochum, a central analytical facility within the Department of Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics.

    The Natural History Museum, London, UK
    The Natural History Museum is an international leader in the scientific study of the natural world. Its Mineralogy Department operates 2 CAMECA electron microprobes under leadership from John Spratt. Recent projects have covered a wide range of mineral characterizations including a gem quality scandium end-member thortveitite and a new mineral mavlyanovite.

    R. Castaing Microcharacterization Center, Toulouse, France
    The University of Toulouse III is long term CAMECA EPMA user, with the first MS46 installed in 1973. Two microprobes were acquired simultaneously in 2014 to equip the recently created Centre de microcaractérisation Raimond Castaing, part of the Clément Ader Institute.

    The American Museum of Natural History, New York
    The electron microprobe facility at AMNH is a joint facility shared between the museum and Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Earth scientists at Columbia University can operate the SX 100 microprobe from their remote location 18 miles north of New York City by means of a dedicated internet service.

    School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, UK
    The Manchester Electron Microprobe Facility offers a world-class electron beam microanalysis service to NERC funded researchers as well as other United Kingdom workers conducting research in the NERC science area. Those currently making use of the facility include: Igneous and metamorphic petrologists, Sedimentologists, Cosmochemists, Environmental geoscientists, Soil scientists and Science based archaeologists...

    New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, USA
    The 'Bureau' is a research and service division of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech). The SX 100 at NM tech is used for a wide range of research projects, mostly in the areas of geology and material science (monazite geochronology, characterization of ore metals and mine dump material...

    Oregon State University, USA
    The SX 100 installed at the Marine Geology and Geophysics facilities within the College of Oceanic & Atmospheric Science also offers remote operational capabilities to Portland State University.

    Wits University, South Africa
    The Microscopy and Microanalysis Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa is equipped with a Field Emission EPMA. The SXFiveFE lab was inaugurated in August 2014.

    University of Johannesburg, South Africa
    The Central Analytical Facility of the Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg (Spectrum) aims to become an African leader in the analytical field. The SX 100 at Spectrum is used for a wide range of mineralogical and metallurgical applications.

     

    Links to Microanalysis Societies

    Microbeam Analysis Society
    Formed in 1968, the MAS is an organization of professionals who work with or have an active interest in microbeam instrumentation. The Society provides a forum for members from industrial and academic settings, engaged in research, development, analysis and instrument manufacturing, to exchange ideas and practical experience. It is a sponsor of the annual Microscopy and Microanalysis Conference, and holds workshops with a focus on microanalytical topics

    European Microbeam Analysis Society
    EMAS was founded in 1987 as a scientific society focusing on microbeam analysis methodology. Its primary purposes are education, communication and innovation...

    Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de MicroAnalyses (GN-MEBA)
    French Scanning Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis Group, formerly group 8 of the ANRT (Association Nationale de la Recherche Technique).